The Caucasus Mountains protect the country from the Arctic air masses that affect Russia in winter while the Caspian Sea shields it from the hot, dry air of Central Asia in the summer.
Temperatures in the winter are mild (0-15°C/32-59°F) at lower altitudes and along the coast and drops moderately as you head inland and drastically as you head into the mountains (-20°C/-4°F is possible in the Caucasus Mountains).
Occupied by the local Armenian troops to this day, this conflict has not officially ended and minor skirmishes are frequent, and this is a major source of contention among Azerbaijanis.
Mediation over the issue has proved ineffective and to this day, the government regularly threatens to launch an invasion against Armenia and take the territory over by force if mediation fails.
Azerbaijan is a former Soviet republic in the Caucasus and variously considered part of Europe or Asia. It borders Russia and Georgia to the north, Armenia to the west, and Iran in the south.
Nakhchivan is quite different, high and arid, summers here can easily surpass 40°C (104°F) while winter nights often drop below -20°C (-4°F)..fact the country's extreme minimum and maximum (-33°C/-27°F & 46°C/115°F) were both recorded in southern Nakhchivan!The government is a kleptocracy run by the Aliyev family and their allies.While the opposition is often sacked or imprisoned, it is not as severely authoritarian compared to Turkmenistan, Iran or the Russian Caucasus.Following independence in 1991, Azerbaijan has allowed western companies to develop its neglected, but extensive, oil fields, especially since the mid-2000s.
Despite this and related investments, corruption is pervasive, and the government, which eliminated presidential term limits in a 2009 referendum, has been repeatedly accused of human rights abuses.
Snow is rare in Baku and along the coast in general while common inland and copious in the mountains, where many villages may be cut off during the winter.