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Key words: adaptive comanagement; collaborative research; collaborative resource management; ecological monitoring; environmental change; historical ecology; local and traditional knowledge (LTK); marine conservation; marine ecology; marine ecosystems Over the past several decades, as concerns about declines in local habitats, species, and livelihoods have increased, the potential contributions of local and traditional knowledge (LTK) to ecosystem research and management have been increasingly recognized.

To date, LTK studies have been diverse and often interdisciplinary.

Finally we suggest how diverse, time-tested, traditional knowledge; stewardship principles; and technologies embedded in LTK systems may be applicable to the human adaptation and resilience needs of a complex, changing environment (Berkes et al. Before turning to the review of the aims and substantive content of LTK studies, we first briefly set out key definitions and how marine LTK may be best understood. Secondly, it involves examining the structure and distribution of knowledge within communities (Felt 1994, Ruddle 1994, Olsson and Folke 2001, Crona 2006, Knudsen 2008) and how it corresponds to broader differentiations and power relations (Crona and Bodin 2010). Moving towards spatial solutions in marine conservation with indigenous communities.

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The benefits of a deep ethnographic approach, often involving years of research, are evident in a handful of classic marine LTK monographs (e.g., Malinowski 1922, Nelson 1969, Johannes 1981).

These studies suggest that while LTK does not simply erode or ossify in the wake of social, technical, and environmental change, its content, resilience, and adaptive development are not guaranteed and depend on a range of interrelated factors.

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