England and Scotland also continued to each have its own system of education.
Meanwhile, the long War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was underway with France. Trevelyan argues: That Treaty [of Utrecht], which ushered in the stable and characteristic period of Eighteenth-Century civilization, marked the end of danger to Europe from the old French monarchy, and it marked a change of no less significance to the world at large,—the maritime, commercial and financial supremacy of Great Britain.
Since the 1990s large-scale devolution movements in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales have decentralized political decision-making.
Britain has wobbled back and forth on its economic relationships with Western Europe.
In 1922, Catholic Ireland seceded to become the Irish Free State; a day later, Northern Ireland seceded from the Free State and returned to the United Kingdom.
In 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, The Kingdom of Great Britain came into being on , as a result of the political union of the Kingdom of England (which included Wales) and the Kingdom of Scotland according to the Treaty of Union.
It see-sawed back and forth A more peace-minded government came to power in London and the treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt in 1713–1714 ended the war. The Stuart line died with Anne in 1714, although a die-hard faction with French support supported pretenders.
However, the Brexit referendum in 2016 committed the UK to an exit from the European Union; negotiations are currently underway.
However, while the Empire remained strong, As did the London financial markets, the British industrial base began to slip behind Germany and especially the United States.
Sentiments for peace were so strong that the nation supported appeasement of Hitler's Germany in the late 1930s, until the Nazi invasion of Poland in 1939 opened the Second World War. Britain and its Empire faced near defeat at several points, 1940–42, but finally crushed Germany, Italy and Japan.
The Tories, who came to power in 1783, remained in power (with a short interruption) until 1830.
Forces of reform, often emanating from the Evangelical religious elements, opened decades of political reform that broadened the ballot, and opened the economy to free trade.It enabled the two kingdoms to be combined into a single kingdom, merging the two parliaments into a single parliament of Great Britain.